the aim of this study was to systematically evaluate the antinociceptive properties of yhs by testing it in four standardized pain assays and to investigate its mechanism. none of the studies addressed concomitantly yhs effects in acute, inflammatory and neuropathic pain. therefore, we systematically evaluated the antinociceptive properties of yhs in three animal models of pain assays and investigated its pharmacological profile and mechanism of action. stable cell clones were selected in the presence of 200 μg/ml g418, 200 μg/ml hygromycin and 200 μg/ml zeocin. therefore, a 500 mg/kg yhs administration (i.p., 5 ml/kg) was compared to the administration of a mixture of 1mg/kg l-thp (i.p., 5 ml/kg) and 1mg/kg dhcb (i.p., 5 ml/kg) in the tail flick assay. immediately after formalin injection, mice were placed individually in the beaker and a mirror was arranged at a 45° angle under the beaker to allow clear observation of the paws. the loss of the antinociceptive effects of drugs in the tail-flick test was used to assess the degree of tolerance.
we extended our study to evaluate the antinociceptive properties of yhs in the formalin paw assay, which measures both acute and chronic inflammatory responses . these results indicate that the antinociceptive effect of yhs in acute pain but not inflammatory pain is attenuated in d2ko mice. we further characterized the pharmacological profile of yhs (table 1) and demonstrated that antinociceptive effects of yhs are partially attributed to the interaction with dopamine d2 receptor in acute and neuropathic pain, but not inflammatory pain (figs (figs22 and and33). our study shows that in d2ko mice, the antinociceptive effects of yhs are significantly decreased in acute and neuropathic pain assays. (e) effects of yhs (100, 200 mg/kg) in the mice used as wild-type control for the d2ko mice assessed in the rotarod assay (n = 8). (d) cumulative effects of the antinociceptive effects of yhs (200 mg/kg) in the formalin paw licking assay (n = 6–7). (a) effects of yhs (200 mg/kg) in d2ko mice assessed in the tail flick assay (n = 10). (f) paw withdraw latency (pwl) difference between contralateral (contra) and ipsilateral (ipsi) paws in wt and d2ko mice assessed in the hot box assay 60 minutes after yhs (200 mg/kg) administration (n = 9–10): t = 1.394, p = 0.1812. unpaired student t test, n.s., not significant.
this review paper aims to provide a comprehensive review of the phytochemical and pharmacological effects of these alkaloids that have significant ties to analgesia. moreover, chronic pain prevalence is expected to increase in the coming years, due to an aging population, increase in cases of diabetes and cancer survival rates . corydalis yanhusuo is cultivated in the zhejiang, jiangxi, and anhui provinces of china and has a long history of medicinal uses . alkaloids are the primary constituents of the yhs extract and play a crucial role in pain relief . furthermore, these results demonstrate that an imbalance in the polarization of microglia is towards the m1 phenotype in the spinal cord and this may contribute to the development of bone cancer pain . furthermore, it has also been shown to be a potential in the treatment of drug addiction to cocaine and opiates . in addition, dhcb was tested in the formalin assay to demonstrate its effects in acute and persistent inflammatory pain responses .
berberine (shown in figure 4) is a known active component of yhs that has been reported to play a prominent analgesic role in some pathological conditions of pain . it has also been proposed that the anti-cholinesterase activity of berberine is involved in its analgesic mechanism . another study determined that palmatine inhibited trif-dependent nf-κb pathway, which causes a decrease in the production of proinflammatory factors and an increase in the production of anti-inflammatory factors . in turn, this determined that the possible mechanisms are related to the inhibition of toll-like receptor 4-mediated nf-κb and mapk signaling pathways . in addition, binding models of columbamine with mao-b active sites revealed that it buries itself inside the pocket of mao-b, a mechanism similar to safinamide inhibition . in this article, we reviewed the phytochemical and pharmacological effects of these alkaloids that have significant ties to analgesia. all authors have read and agreed to the published version of the manuscript. 2department of developmental and cell biology, school of biological sciences, university of california-irvine, irvine, ca 92697, usa
corydalis yanhusuo is a plant species in the genus corydalis. the chinese name for corydalis yanhusuo is yan hu suo. the japanese common name is engosaku and the korean common name is hyeonhosaek. english common names include yanhusuo, corydalis, and asian corydalis. corydalis yanhusuo. w.t. extracts (yhs) are widely used for the treatment of pain and inflammation. there are a few studies that assessed corydalis yanhusuo extract (yhs) has been used for centuries across asia for pain relief. the extract is made up of more than 160 compounds corydalis yanhusuo is a plant species in the genus corydalis. the chinese name for corydalis yanhusuo is yan hu suo the japanese common name is engosaku, corydalis yanhusuo common name, corydalis yanhusuo common name, does corydalis really work for pain, corydalis yanhusuo extract, corydalis high.
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