this review looks at the mechanisms of cryptolepis-induced cytotoxicity, its link with inflammation and its potential as anticancer agent. this paper examines the interwoven mechanisms involved in the cytotoxicity and anti-inflammatory activity of cryptolepis and its alkaloid, cryptolepine, and suggests possible roles that cryptolepis and cryptolepine could play in the management of certain forms of cancer. under normal cellular conditions, nf-kb binds to and is negatively regulated by inhibitor of kappa b (ikb) in the cytoplasm. the dual role of nf-kb in cell survival and cell death may be due to several reasons and mechanisms as well as the structure and function of nf-kb.
this leads to the inhibition of the expression of inflammatory genes and consequent reduction in tumor incidence. this raises the possibility that cryptolepine may enhance sensitivity of cancer cells to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. cryptolepis/cryptolepine is anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic with the inhibition of cox-2 and nf-kb as principal mechanisms. it is highly possible that this effect of cryptolepis may be related to its inhibition of the activity of prostaglandins.
traditionally in west africa, it is employed in the treatment of malaria, diarrhea, and respiratory conditions. the length of its branches and its twining and scrambling nature enable its use as a rope in the construction of houses. the methanol extract of the plant has been shown to contain alkaloids, tannins, and flavones [26, 41]. various analytical procedures, qualitative and quantitative, have been employed in the analysis of the phytochemical composition of c. sanguinolenta, mostly its alkaloidal content. ameyaw and duker-eshun employed the n/10 iodine solution and mayer’s and dragendorff’s reagents to confirm the presence of alkaloids in a hydroalcoholic extract of the plant . it was identified that development of p. vinckei petteri and p. berghei parasites in mice was significantly inhibited by cryptolepine with the former demonstrating more sensitivity. in the study, it was shown that the aqueous root extract of c. sanguinolenta and its major alkaloid, cryptolepine, had minimal inhibitory effects on the late stage plasmodium falciparum nf54 gametocytes. in confirming the plant’s activity against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, an activity which the authors attribute to the presence of cryptolepine, the main alkaloid in c. sanguinolenta [64, 65].
in a study to elucidate the mechanism of action of c. sanguinolenta and its alkaloid cryptolepine in the inhibition of neuroinflammation, olajide and his team showed that the plant extract and its derivative alkaloid both significantly inhibit tnf-α, il-6, and pge2 production in sk-n-sh cells and il-1β-stimulated cells. in a study by ekundayo and ezeogu , both the methanol and the dichloromethane root extracts inhibited c. albicans growth with zones of inhibition of 8 mm and 10 mm, respectively. pretreatment with cryptolepine reduced the levels of bcl-2, cyclin d1, survivin, xiap, and ciap in cells stimulated with tnf-α. to evaluate the relevance of cryptolepine, the major alkaloid of c. sanguinolenta in the long-term management of diabetes mellitus, ameyaw et al. the team reported a reduction in the mean weight of the left caudal epididymis and the testes following treatment with the extract, although the result was not significant (p > 0.05) compared to the control. the antifertility effect of c. sanguinolenta has also been demonstrated by ameyaw et al. since this association is inconclusive, further studies need to be done to properly understand the effects of c. sanguinolenta and its derived alkaloids in the gastric mucosa. the plant and its alkaloid both caused a dose- and time-dependent reduction in viability of the v79 cell line. future studies on c. sanguinolenta can screen for possible chemotherapeutic potential as well as anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of the extract and its bioactive constituents, such as cryptolepine, as potential therapy in humans.
cryptolepis/cryptolepine is anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic with the inhibition of cox-2 and nf-kb as principal mechanisms. we hypothesized that the kidneys this plant belongs to the genus cryptolepis and the species sanguinolenta [28, cryptolepine, however, does not improve liver and kidney damage . cryptolepis sanguinolenta a plant that is used by traditional healers in nowadays, cases of high blood pressure and cardiac and renal disorders are very, cryptolepis toxicity, cryptolepis toxicity, does cryptolepis kill good bacteria, cryptolepis sanguinolenta lyme side effects, cryptolepis antiviral.
toxicology data suggests that cryptolepis sanguinolenta is generally safe at doses under 500 mg/kg of body weight (osafo et al., 2017), however central nervous system toxicity and marginal enlargement of liver and kidney were evident in the 2000 mg/kg treated group. these findings however did not the spleen, liver, kidney and stomach were excised from each rat and weighed. the organ-to-body weight ratios were then calculated. effect of cryptolepis on, cryptolepis benefits, cryptolepis dosage, cryptolepis reviews, cryptolepis candida, cryptolepis lyme disease, cryptolepis supplement, cryptolepis tincture, cryptolepis sanguinolenta dosage for lyme disease, cryptolepis sanguinolenta root, cryptolepis sanguinolenta common name.
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