breast cancer is a recognized adenocarcinoma, the most common cancer in women and the second leading cause of death in women after lung cancer. such heterogeneity in presentation and treatment outcomes has led to a multimodal and multidisciplinary approach that involves the use of natural plant product, so as to enhance survivability. the ginsenoside rh2 is a significant bioactive constituent of red ginseng and the main active anti-cancer saponin in extracts . rh2 significantly inhibits the growth of mda-mb-231 and mcf-7 breast cancer cell lines in a concentration-dependent manner by mediating g(0)/g(1) phase cell cycle arrest. there are only a few studies that have reported the effects of the co-administration of a chemotherapy agent and rg3 in breast cancer models [54,55]. in a recent study that examined the anti-tumor efficacy of diallyl disulfide, the garlic derivative was found to impede the growth of breast cancer cells in vivo and in vitro using animal models . however, there are fewer reports of the association between breast cancer and garlic intake. the treatment of breast cancer patients with tamoxifen frequently induces or exacerbates hot flashes and cause significant ill health in postmenopausal women. in summary, while these studies do not support the anti-cancer activity of black cohosh, there is evidence that supports its efficacy for the reduction of hot flashes, anxiety and other symptoms in patients with breast cancer. in mda-mb-231 breast cancer cells, curcumin dose-dependently reduced the expression of akt protein as well as activate autophagy and suppressed the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway . in summary, these studies demonstrated the chemo-preventative and therapeutic properties of curcumin in breast cancer. catechins are a main class of flavonoids in the leaves of green tea and comprise 30–42% of the full dry weight of green tea. mammographic density denotes the percentage of dense tissue of the whole breast and is a recognized risk factor of breast cancer .
the chemo-preventative and chemotherapeutic agent in green tea is the polyphenol epigallocatechin-3-gallate which has a key role in stimulating apoptosis, a critical aspect of breast cancer prevention. echinacea is a commonly used herbal supplement among cancer patients, and in a study of 318 patients, it was the most popular herbal medicine by 21% of respondents . in summary, echinacea is becoming a very popular herbal medicine and there are studies that have reported the use of echinacea among breast cancer patients. there has been significant interest in the antitumor activity of arctigenin, particularly in in vitro studies using several human cancer cell lines such as the lung, stomach, intestine, ovaries and breast [41,198,199]. compared the anti-proliferative effects of doxorubicin and arctium lappa on mcf-7 and mda-mb-231 breast cancer cell lines. the side effects of tamoxifen include hot flashes and many patients with breast cancer use phytoestrogen-rich foods such as flaxseed and soy to diminish the symptoms and also to enhance the effect of the drug . clinical studies have concluded that flaxseed has the potential to decrease the risk, tumor growth and size in breast cancer patients. similarly, another study that investigated the efficacy of long-term in vitro treatment with thymoquinone showed sustained inhibition of proliferation of mcf-7 human breast cancer cell lines due to s phase and g2 phase arrest . there are studies that have investigated the potential of thymoquinone from nigella sativa to suppress tumor growth and metastasis of breast cancer in in vitro and animal models [241,242]. the pro-apoptotic and anti-proliferative effects of thymoquinone in the breast tumor xenograft mouse model are intermediated through reactive oxygen species and p38 phosphorylation. in another study, thymoquinone improved the anti-cancer properties of doxorubicin in mcf-7 breast cancer cell line as there was a significant increase in the inhibition of cancer cells and apoptosis. the studies documented that thymoquinone inhibited the growth of breast cancer cells in animal models and culture tumors through numerous molecular mechanisms. of interest is the synergistic effects in the co-delivery of chemotherapeutic drugs and nano-formulation of curcumin in order to improve the chemo-preventive and chemotherapeutic effects of the latter. all authors have read and agreed to the published version of the manuscript.
in the last decade, a large number of plants and their compounds were reported to show promising anticancerous effects against breast cancer cells in both in vivo and in vitro models. cancer of the breast is among the most frequently diagnosed cancer and the leading cause of cancer-related deaths in females globally. epidemiological observation shows that the incidence of breast cancer is continuously raising in both industrialized and developing countries . another effective strategy in breast cancer treatment is the implementation of a growth factor inhibitor. the role of chemotherapy in curing cancer is still doubtful . the side effects that arise due the conventional chemotherapy is mainly due to lack of specificity of the drugs for cancer cells.
hence, blocking the estrogen receptor for the treatment and chemoprevention of breast cancer is one of the significant approaches. here is some evidence that can help to treat breast cancer and its associated toxicity: one of the interesting features for herbal remedies is their selective toxicity toward cancer cells. hence, the benefits of these herbal compounds in synergistic therapy are considerable, and this might help to overcome chemotherapeutic drug resistance and toxicity in breast cancer treatment. one of the primary symptoms of adjuvant chemotherapeutic damage in posttherapy breast cancer patients is hot flushes. though, advances in healthcare research lead to the identification and characterization of most breast cancer types and corresponding cure. herbal remedies play a significant role in the management of breast cancer and the associated therapeutic toxicity.
there are some examples of plants that are used in breast cancer, for example ginko, goldenseal, ginseng, garlic, echinacea, aloe vera and saw curcuminoids are natural polyphenol compounds and there are three types namely diferuloylmethane (curcumin i), desmetoxicurcumin (curcumin ii) curcumin, a renowned anticancer herbal compound down-regulated the expression of breast cancer markers in vivo and in vitro when administered, related health topics, related health topics.
natural cures for breast cancer garlic garlic (allium sativum), for hundreds of years it has been used for treating many illnesses. turmeric cinobufacin is a patent-protected traditional chinese medicine that has been widely used for the treatment and prevention of breast cancer in china. breast cancer is completely recoverable by using a combination of food & natural supplements. the treatment through natural system is non-, .
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