radix notoginseng

coronary artery disease (cad) is a major public health problem and the chief cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. now the compound of pns is available as an over-the-counter drug in both china and worldwide. the main medical component is the radix of p. notoginseng, also known as sanqi, tianqi, and shanqi in east asian countries (wang t. et al., 2016). the amounts of these four components in pns are 30, 2.5, 20, and 2.5%, respectively. in addition, the relative retention time of p. notoginseng and the characteristic peaks of the six extraction liquids should be in accordance with the standard by hplc fingerprint identification. the rehospitalization rate of patients with pns was better than in the control group (1/30 and 3/30; han, 2008) (table 3). the results showed that the frequency of unstable angina pectoris, pain intensity and duration were significantly reduced (kuang et al., 2011). the incidence of abnormal liver function, gastrointestinal reaction, and recurrent cardiovascular events in patients with atorvastatin was significantly higher than pns (feng et al., 2016). in the experimental group of yan et al. one case of nausea and 1 case of positive fecal occult blood occurred in the control group (yan et al., 2015). the effect of pns in anti-platelet aggregation is related to the suppression of intracellular calcium mobilization and erk2/p38 activation. the improvement of mpo and crp ameliorated the long-term risk assessment of outcomes in cad patients (heslop et al., 2010). pns could impede the development of atherosclerotic lesions through the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects (aronoff et al., 2004). pns could regulate lipid metabolism by increasing the expression of fabp4 and cpt-1a (wang q. et al., 2016). the effect of pns in anti-platelet aggregation is associated with inhibition of intracellular calcium mobilization and activation of erk2/p38. in addition, both atorvastatin and pns have been observed to suppress vsmc proliferation by inhibiting the activation of the erk signaling pathway (zhang et al., 2012). pns was able to decrease lipids, ox-ldl in serum and the expressions of cd40 and mmp-9 in apoe(−/−) mice (liu et al., 2009). pgc-1α is a transcriptional coactivator of the ppars and a critical factor in myocardial metabolism (huss et al., 2004). the combination of salb and rg1, instead of salb and rb1, advanced cardiac contractility in rats with mi (deng et al., 2015). meanwhile pns has the roles of anti-inflammation and anti-platelet aggregation. in the entire pathological process of cad, at different pathological stages, pns can effectively reduce the occurrence and the development of cad. pns have multiple positive effects in the key processes of cad, including anti-inflammation, the regulation of lipid metabolism and the coagulation system, anti-apoptosis, pro-angiogenesis, anti-atherosclerosis, and anti-myocardial ischaemia. efficacy and safety of cholesterol-lowering treatment: prospective meta-analysis of data from 90 056 participants in 14 randomised trials of statins. relative contribution of enos and nnos to endothelium-dependent vasodilation in the mouse aorta. angiopoietin/tie-2 as mediators of angiogenesis: a role in congestive heart failure? clinical and experimental study on the treatment of angina pectoris by ginseng. effects of xuesaitong soft capsule on plasma endothelin and c-reactive protein in patients with angina pectoris. effects of total saponins of panax notoginseng and atorvastatin on blood lipid, common carotid artery thickness and plaque score in patients with coronary heart disease. [protective effects of saponines of stem and leaf of panax notoginseng on acute myocardial ischemia in anaesthetic dogs]. [synergistic protective effects of salvianolic acids and panax notoginseng saponins on cardiomyocytes with hypoxia-reoxygenation injury].

[effects of panax notoginsenoside on tnf-alpha and mmp-2 expressions in rats with post-myocardial infarction ventricular remodeling and the mechanism]. xuesaitong soft capsule on the intervention of postoperative intervention in patients with coronary heart disease. doi: 10.1161/01.str.25.12.2331 heslop, c. l., frohlich, j. j., and hill, j. s. (2010). angiogenic effect of saponin extract from panax notoginseng on huvecs in vitro and zebrafish in vivo. estrogen-related receptor α directs peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α signaling in the transcriptional control of energy metabolism in cardiac and skeletal muscle. effect of xuesaitong soft capsule on efficacy of unstable angina pectoris and ecg qt dispersion. a comparative study on anticoagulant activities of three chinese herbal medicines from the genus panax and anticoagulant activities of ginsenosides rg1 and rg2. saponins of panax notoginseng: chemistry, cellular targets and therapeutic opportunities in cardiovascular diseases. panax notoginseng saponins promotes stroke recovery by influencing expression of nogo-a, ngr and p75ngf, in vitro and in vivo. the ppar trio: regulators of myocardial energy metabolism in health and disease. atherosclerosis in the apolipoprotein e-deficient mouse – a decade of progress. platelets in inflammation and atherogenesis. ldl oxidative modification and carotid atherosclerosis: results of a multicenter study. abnormal soluble cd40 ligand and c-reactive protein concentrations in hypertension: relationship to indices of angiogenesis. doi: 10.1016/j.intimp.2011.12.001 santos-gallego, c. g., picatoste, b., and badimon, j. j. clinical observation of coronary heart disease and angina pectoris treated by xuesaitong soft capsule. panax notoginseng saponins induced up-regulation, phosphorylation and binding activity of mek, erk, akt, pi-3k protein kinases and gata transcription factors in hematopoietic cells. pns on the pathogenesis of coronary heart disease and blood stasis associated with mirna and target genes. osteoprotegerin as a predictor of coronary artery disease and cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. [effect of radix notoginseng saponins on platelet activating molecule expression and aggregation in patients with blood hyperviscosity syndrome]. the effect of chinese herbs and its effective components on coronary heart disease through ppars-pgc1alpha pathway. doi: 10.1039/c4np00080c xiong, x.-j., wang, z., and wang, j. effects of panax notoginseng saponins on proliferation and apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells. xuesaitong soft capsule (chinese patent medicine) for the treatment of unstable angina pectoris: a meta-analysis and systematic review. temporal expression of cyclooxygenase-2 in peritoneal macrophages of rats and effects of panax notoginseng saponins. proteomic studies on protective effects of salvianolic acids, notoginsengnosides and combination of salvianolic acids and notoginsengnosides against cardiac ischemic-reperfusion injury. chinese preparation xuesaitong promotes the mobilization of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells in rats with cerebral infarction. effect of notoginsenoside r1 on the synthesis of tissue-type plasminogen activator and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells. estrogen receptor alpha mediates the effects of notoginsenoside r1 on endotoxin-induced inflammatory and apoptotic responses in h9c2 cardiomyocytes. the use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice.

how to delay aging and to prevent cell senescence-associated diseases has become a hotspot of research all over the world. aging is the result of both physiological and pathological processes that lead to a progressive functional decline in cells, tissues, and organisms. panax notoginseng, distributed in the southwest of china, japan, burma, and nepal, is both cultivated and gathered from wild forests. these might contribute to the mechanism of panax notoginseng on anti-aging and aging-associated diseases. the anti-vascular aging function and mechanism of extracts and bioactive components of panax notoginseng was summarized in table 1. immune senescence induced by aging manifests in the brain as age-associated microglia senescence. aging is associated with multiple alterations in the proliferative and functional properties of the immune system. t helper 17 (th17) cells have been implicated in the development of autoimmune and chronic inflammatory diseases in humans. pns could inhibit the proliferation and metastasis of the cancer cells.

the possible reasons for the decline include the inability of lymphocytes to proliferation in response to mitogenic stimulation and the decrease of il-2 production. based on these results, rb1 is believed to be the main anti-stress principle in panax notoginseng, and it might be a promising candidate for prevention and treatment of stress-related diseases. proteomic analysis showed that the expression of 23 protein spots was upregulated in re and h2o2 groups to resist oxidative stress [91]. the products of heat-processed re also activated caspase-8, caspase-9, and caspase-3, followed by cleavage of parp, in a dose-dependent manner. the total polysaccharide fraction has been demonstrated to stimulate the proliferation of murine spleen lymphocytes in vivo as well as in vitro, and to oppose the action of the t-cell suppressor, cyclosporin a[116]. the antioxidant capacity of trilinolein has also been demonstrated in brain astrocytes, liver and spleen [121, 122]. in ad, there is a reduction in the ability of tau to bind to tubulin and promote microtubule assembly. acetylcholine (ach) is synthesized in the cytosol of cholinergic presynaptic neurons from choline and acetyl-coenzyme a (acetyl-coa) by the enzyme choline acetyltransferase (chat) and is then transferred into synaptic vesicles.

panax notoginseng is a species of the genus panax, and it is commonly referred to in english as chinese ginseng or notoginseng. in chinese it is called tixe1nqu012b, tienchi ginseng, su0101nqu012b or sanchi, three-seven root, and mountain plant. p. notoginseng belongs to the same scientific genus as panax ginseng. panax notoginseng is a plant. the leaves, fruit, and flowers are used to make medicine. however, the root is used the most commonly. radix notoginseng is used in chinese medicine to improve blood circulation and clotting; however, the pharmacological activities of other parts of panax it has been one of the most acclaimed herbs in china for 400 years. panax notoginseng is traditionally applied as an anodyne and a hemorheologic, radix notoginseng benefits, radix notoginseng benefits, notoginseng side effects, panax notoginseng sleep, panax notoginseng vs panax ginseng.

panax notoginseng has been extensively employed in china to treat microcirculatory disturbances, inflammation, trauma, internal and external bleeding due to sanchi, also known as radix notoginseng, is a chinese traditional medicine prepared from roots of the herb panax notoginseng. panax notoginseng is a species of the genus panax, and it is commonly referred to in english as chinese ginseng or notoginseng. in chinese it is called, panax notoginseng common name, panax notoginseng saponins, panax notoginseng dosage, panax notoginseng flower, tian qi benefits, panax notoginseng in chinese, notoginseng powder.

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