purpose: this study aimed to investigate the potential mechanisms and related bioactive components of zss for the treatment of insomnia. finally, we validated the proposed active mechanisms of zss in a pcpa-induced insomnia rat model by rt-qrcr and immunohistochemical analysis. the research procedure is shown in figure 1. figure 1. the workflow plan used to investigate the effects of zss on insomnia using network pharmacology and an experimental validation approach. the temperature of the autosampler was 5°c. rats in the model group, the estazolam group, and the zss group, were intraperitoneally injected with pcpa (350 mg/kg) once a day for 3 days. we used batman-tcm (.org.cn/batman-tcm/) (ji et al., 2019) and the swisstargetprediction database (/) (gfeller et al., 2014) to identify the relevant biological targets of candidate ingredients from zss. five of these compounds (spinosin, 6ʹʹʹ-feruloylspinosin, jujuboside a, jujuboside b, and betulinic acid) were identified by comparison to standard references; the others were identified by comparison with literature. the weight of rats in the zss and estazolam treatment groups were significantly higher than that in the pcpa group (p < 0.05). after overlapping the zss-associated targets and the insomnia-associated targets, we identified 118 targets potential targets for zss in the treatment of insomnia (supplementary table s3). figure 7. the effects of zss on the mrna expression levels of htr1a (a), htr2a (b), gabra1 (c) and gabrg2 (d) in the hypothalamus. the results of both experimental and clinical studies have proven the effect of htr2a receptor antagonists in the treatment of insomnia (cohrs et al., 2005). our research indicated that the mechanism underlying the action of zss in the treatment of insomnia is mainly related to the modulation of 5-ht and gabaergic synapse pathways. this research systematically investigated the role of multiple components in the effects of zss on insomnia and provided a new basis for the improvement of quality control standards. cannabis, cannabinoids, and sleep: a review of the literature. artemisia capillaris thunberg produces sedative-hypnotic effects in mice, which are probably mediated through potentiation of the gabaa receptor.
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of note, compound extracts of szs and fg have a synergistic effect on the learning and memory of mice. the results showed that in both of the tasks, szs and fg have a synergistic effect on improving the learning and memory of mice. four experiments were designed to assess the effect of szs and fg oils on improving murine learning and memory. for the step-down passive avoidance task, the latency period for the mouse to step down the platform and the number of times that the mouse stepped down the platform within 3 min (no. assessment of memory consolidation with step-through and -down passive avoidance task was conducted 24 h after the training session and was performed in the same manner.
notably, the compound oil of szs and fg was the most effective, suggesting a synergistic effect for improving learning and memory in mice. our experiments demonstrated that the extracts of szs and fg improved learning and memory in mice, however, szs was more efficient compared to fg. effect of extracts of szs and fg on the performance of mice with impairment in memory acquisition. effect of extracts of szs and fg on the performance of mice with impairment in memory consolidation. effect of extracts of szs and fg on mice with sodium nitrite induced memory impairment in morris water maze task (n=10, the mean ± sd).
ziziphi spinosae semen (zss), known as suan zao ren in china, has been widely used to manage insomnia and palpitations in traditional semen ziziphi spinosae (szs) and fructus gardeniae (fg) are two herbs commonly used in traditional chinese medicine. previous studies have suggested that semen ziziphi spinosae (suanzaoren in china) and radix et rhizoma salviae miltiorrhizae (danshen in china) are conventional herbal drugs in traditional, ziziphi spinosae hypnotic effect, ziziphi spinosae hypnotic effect, ziziphi spinosae wiki, cortex cinnamomi, rhizoma anemarrhenae.
semen ziziphi spinosae is an excellent natural and safe “sedative” herb. in chinese medicine, this herb nourishes the two organs responsible for sleep – the ziziphi spinosae semen (zs, the seeds of ziziphus jujuba mill. var. spinosa (bunge) hu ex h. f. chou) is used as a traditional chinese medicine referred to semen ziziphi spinosae (ziziphus jujuba mill. var. spinosa (bunge) hu ex h. f. chou) is a functional food and a traditional chinese medicine (tcm) in china., radix paeoniae alba, rhizoma polygonati benefits, ziziphus jujuba, sour date seed, suanzaoren, radix angelicae sinensis, poria, rhizoma chuanxiong, fructus lycii, radix polygalae.
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